Welding, a cornerstone of many industries, plays a vital role in the construction of buildings, vehicles, and countless other essential structures and products. While the importance of this profession is undisputed, it also comes with its own unique set of challenges, notably the health risks associated with welding fumes.

The complex mix of potentially toxic metal fumes and gas by-products produced during welding can lead to serious health issues, from lung diseases to neurological problems. Understanding the nature of these welding fumes and the appropriate methods for their management is crucial for anyone in the welding profession.

However, it’s not uncommon to encounter various myths and misconceptions surrounding welding fumes, their hazards, and their control. These misconceptions can downplay the risks’ severity, contributing to unsafe work environments and practices.

In this blog post, we aim to dispel some of these myths and shed light on the true nature of welding fumes. By having the correct information, we can better protect those in the welding industry from potential hazards, fostering safer work environments and healthier employees.

The Nature of Welding Fumes

Welding fumes are a by-product of the welding process, produced when a metal or a welding wire is heated above its boiling point. As a result, the metal vaporizes, and tiny particles are emitted into the air. Once these particles cool down, they become airborne particulates, forming what we know as welding fumes.

These fumes can contain a complex mix of metallic oxides, silicates, and fluorides. The exact composition of welding fumes largely depends on the type of metal being welded, the welding process, and the type of filler materials used. For example, welding processes involving stainless steel can produce fumes containing hexavalent chromium (recognized as a human carcinogen) and nickel, while welding on galvanized steel can lead to the generation of zinc oxide fumes.

Regardless of the welding process or the material involved, effective management of welding fumes is paramount to ensure the safety and health of welding professionals.

Common Myths and Misconceptions

Myth 1: Welding fumes are harmless.

This myth is one of the most dangerous misconceptions in the welding industry. As we have already established, welding fumes are far from harmless. Some of its components are known to pose serious health risks.

Short-term or acute exposure to welding fumes can cause immediate health effects, commonly known as “metal fume fever.” Symptoms include a flu-like illness with fever, chills, nausea, headache, fatigue, muscle aches, and joint pains. These symptoms usually start several hours after exposure and can last for a day or two.

Long-term or chronic exposure to certain welding fumes can lead to more severe health conditions. Regular inhalation of iron oxide fumes, for instance, can result in siderosis, a lung disease that can cause chronic cough and shortness of breath. Prolonged exposure to stainless steel fumes containing carcinogenic hexavalent chromium can increase the risk of lung cancer. Welding fumes containing manganese have been linked to neurological effects similar to Parkinson’s disease.

In fact, according to OSHA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the CNESST (Canada), breathing welding fumes could cause the following health effects:

  • Eye, nose, and throat irritation
  • Dizziness and nausea
  • Breathing difficulties that could lead to suffocation or asphyxiation
  • Metal fume fever
  • Lung damage
  • Stomach ulcers
  • Kidney damage
  • Nervous system damage
  • Manganism
  • Chest pain
  • Asthma
  • Bleedings
  • Dermatitis or eczema
  • Kidney disease
  • Bone and joint disorders
  • Siderosis (iron oxide in lung tissue after inhalation)
  • Stannosis (tin oxide in lung tissue after inhalation)
  • Anthracosis (poisoning after inhalation of carbon dust)
  • Berylliosis (poisoning after inhalation of beryllium dust)
  • Accumulation of fluid in the lungs
  • Different types of cancer

Given these potential health impacts, it’s important to debunk this myth and recognize welding fumes as a significant occupational hazard. Only by understanding the actual risks associated with welding fumes can we implement the necessary measures to ensure the safety and health of all welding professionals.

Myth 2: Welding in open spaces requires no fume extraction.

This myth is another prevalent myth in the welding industry. It may seem intuitive to think that welding in open or outdoor spaces naturally mitigates the risk of fume accumulation, thus eliminating the need for fume extraction. However, this is not entirely accurate.

While open-air environments can help disperse welding fumes, it doesn’t guarantee that these hazardous particles are entirely removed or that the welder or nearby workers won’t inhale them. Wind direction, speed, and shifts can change rapidly, potentially blowing fumes directly toward the welder. Moreover, specific welding processes generate heavy fumes that may not quickly disperse, even in open spaces.

Therefore, even when welding outdoors, it’s crucial to have adequate fume extraction systems. Portable fume extraction units or on-torch extraction systems, such as fume extraction MIG guns, are particularly suitable for such environments. These systems work at the source, capturing and filtering fumes before they can disperse into the surrounding air.

In addition, wearing appropriate PPE, such as respiratory protective equipment, can also be necessary and further reduce the risk of inhaling hazardous particles. This approach, known as the hierarchy of control, prioritizes source control (i.e., fume extraction) and includes personal protection for a comprehensive approach to managing welding fumes.

In conclusion, no matter where welding operations are carried out, proper fume extraction and management should consistently be implemented to ensure the health and safety of all workers. Moreover, it’s good to reduce the environmental impact of welding activities.

Myth 3: All welding fumes are the same.

Believing that all welding fumes are identical can be a significant oversight in understanding the hazards associated with different welding processes. The composition of welding fumes can vary substantially depending on several factors, including the type of metal being welded, the welding process used, and the composition of any filler materials or shielding gases.

For instance, stainless steel welding can generate fumes containing hexavalent chromium, a known carcinogen. On the other hand, welding on galvanized steel often produces fumes rich in zinc oxide. Welding on aluminum, or using aluminum filler materials, can create fumes containing aluminum particulates and ozone. Even within the same type of metal, the exact alloy composition can change the fume makeup.

The various welding processes, from Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) to Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW), and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding, can all produce different amounts and types of fumes. Some processes inherently generate more fumes than others, and using different filler materials and shielding gases can further alter the fume composition.

  • Less fume: TIG, resistance welding, submerged arc, laser cutting
  • More fume: MIG, MAG, plasma cutting
  • The most fume: Stick welding, flux cored, arc gouging

Each type of welding fume can present unique health risks. For example, manganese, often found in steel welding fumes, can cause Manganism, a neurological condition similar to Parkinson’s disease, while the aforementioned hexavalent chromium is linked to lung cancer.

Therefore, understanding the risks associated with different fume compositions is vital in tailoring appropriate safety measures. Employers and workers need to evaluate each welding task individually and apply the necessary controls and protections based on the specific fume hazards. Air sampling is usually required to understand the fume’s composition and associated risks. Remember, safety in welding isn’t one-size-fits-all. It’s a tailored approach based on understanding the unique risks each job entails.

If you have any questions about welding fume, do not hesitate to contact us. We will be happy to give you some insight, and we can even visit you for free in the US and Canada.

Henlex Inc.

Myth 4: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is enough to protect from welding fumes.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) plays a role in protecting welders from the potential health hazards of welding fumes. However, relying solely on PPE as a safety measure against welding fumes is a common and dangerous misconception.

The hierarchy of hazard control, widely recognized in occupational health and safety, suggests a series of steps for hazard mitigation. These steps are, in order: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and lastly, PPE. PPE is the last line of defense when other measures are insufficient to adequately control the hazards.

Discover our 8 stop process to solve welding fume problems to learn more about a practical way to implement it.

Engineering controls, which include fume extraction systems, are more effective as they aim to remove or reduce the hazard at the source before it can reach the worker. This involves local exhaust ventilation, which captures and removes fumes at the point of production, and general ventilation systems that maintain air quality across the workspace.

Administrative controls, like proper training, safe work procedures, and rotating tasks among workers, can also effectively reduce exposure to welding fumes.

If necessary, PPE, including respirators, should be used in conjunction with these other controls. While respirators can help protect against inhalation of fumes, they should never be the only measure taken. In fact, they should be the last option considered! Also, it’s important to note that not all respirators are suitable for all types of fumes, and they must be correctly fitted and worn to be effective.

Myth 5: Regular shop vacuums are sufficient for welding fume extraction.

A common misconception is that a standard shop vacuum can double as an effective welding fume extractor. While a shop vacuum can pick up various debris and dust, it is not designed or equipped to handle welding fumes’ specific and hazardous nature.

Here are a few reasons why regular shop vacuums fall short as welding fume extractors:

  • Particle size and filter: Welding fumes contain microscopic particles, often smaller than 1 micrometer. Standard shop vacuums are not designed to effectively capture and filter these ultrafine particles, meaning they can escape into the air.
  • Performance: The vacuum and airflow required to efficiently extract welding fume with local exhaust ventilation, whether a fume extraction gun or a flexible arm, is much more important than the performance a shop vac can provide. Many people make the mistake of looking at a machine’s maximum airflow to decide whether it is suitable. But the operational airflow, which considers the pressure drops in the extractor and filter, is relevant. We have a blog post about the airflow required for each type of fume extractor if you are interested to learn more.
  • Fire risk: Some metals used in welding can create sparks and hot particles. When sucked into a vacuum not designed for this purpose, there’s a risk of the debris igniting a fire within the shop vac.
  • Exhaust: Some pollutants in welding fume cannot be recirculated even when filtered. This means they must be sent outside, but a shop vac is designed to send the filtered air back to the workplace.
  • Health and Safety Regulations: The use of industrial-grade fume extraction systems is often required by health and safety regulations. Using a shop vacuum instead may violate these regulations, leading to potential legal consequences.

To ensure workers’ safety, investing in a proper fume extraction system designed specifically for welding applications is essential. These systems are made to handle the volume, particle size, and nature of welding fumes, ensuring that hazardous particles are effectively removed from the environment and do not threaten workers’ health.

Myth 6: Drinking milk can prevent the harmful effects of welding fumes.

Although it sounds like an old wives’ tale, this myth is surprisingly prevalent within the welding industry. The belief is that drinking milk before or after welding can somehow neutralize the harmful effects of inhaling welding fumes, specifically preventing the onset of “metal fume fever.”

The origin of this myth is unclear, but it is likely based on the idea that calcium in milk can bind with heavy metals and help to eliminate them from the body. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting this claim.

Relying on milk as a protective measure can lead to a false sense of security and may result in neglecting other essential protective measures, such as fume extraction. Furthermore, as we’ve discussed, it’s vital to understand that the health risks associated with welding fumes extend beyond metal fume fever.

The Role of Proper Education and Training

Having debunked some common myths about welding fumes, it becomes apparent that knowledge is a powerful tool in ensuring the safety and health of welders. A well-informed workforce is better equipped to handle the risks associated with their profession and make informed decisions about their safety. Therefore, proper education and training are paramount in dealing with the hazards of welding fumes.

First and foremost, education on the potential hazards of welding, including the health risks posed by welding fumes, should be provided to all workers involved in the welding process. This training should include detailed information about the composition of fumes produced by different types of welding and the specific health hazards they pose.

Further, welders should be trained in the use of fume extraction systems and personal protective equipment. This includes understanding when and how to use these tools and knowing how to maintain them properly to ensure their effectiveness. Understanding the limitations of these protective measures is equally important, as it ensures that workers do not become complacent and neglect other necessary safety measures.

In addition to understanding how to protect themselves, welders should also be taught how to recognize symptoms of overexposure to welding fumes. Early detection of symptoms such as dizziness, respiratory difficulties, or a metallic taste in the mouth can prompt immediate action and prevent further harm.

Lastly, it’s essential to create a culture of safety where all workers feel empowered to voice concerns, ask questions, and report potential safety issues without fear of reprisal. Employers should encourage open communication about safety and regularly reassess their safety training to ensure it remains effective and up-to-date.

By placing a strong emphasis on education and training, we can ensure that welders are equipped to perform their tasks and protect themselves and their coworkers from the hazards of welding fumes.


Welding, a necessary process in numerous industries, brings significant health risks associated with welding fumes. From acute respiratory irritations to chronic conditions like lung cancer and neurological disorders, the potential impacts of these hazardous fumes are far-reaching. Unfortunately, a cloud of myths and misconceptions often surrounds the subject, which can downplay the dangers and foster unsafe work environments.

Through this article, we aimed to debunk some of these prevalent myths, from the false belief that welding fumes are harmless to the misguided reliance on shop vacuums for fume extraction and the mistaken idea that milk can protect against welding fumes. By dispelling these misconceptions, we hope to equip welders, employers, and anyone involved in the welding industry with accurate knowledge, promoting safer practices and healthier workspaces.

However, dismantling these myths is just the beginning. Safety in welding requires a continuous commitment to education, training, and implementing appropriate safety measures. It calls for consistently using suitable fume extraction systems and adherence to the latest safety regulations and guidelines.

Ultimately, the goal is to ensure that every individual in the welding industry is not only equipped to perform their job but also empowered with the knowledge and tools to protect their health and the health of their colleagues.

Any Questions?

Feel free to contact us. We will help you protect your workers and comply with welding fumes standards anywhere in the US and Canada.